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The Polyvagal Theory of Trauma and its implications for the way we understand and work with clients

Oppdatert: 1. mar. 2023


By, Luuk L. Westerhof, MSc






Abstract

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the study of trauma and its effects on the human body. The Polyvagal Theory is a relatively new theory that attempts to explain the relationship between the nervous system and the experience of trauma. This theory has implications for our understanding of how trauma affects the body and the ways in which we can treat it.


Keywords

Trauma; Polyvagal; Nervous System; Vagal tone; Neuroception; Therapy.


Introduction

Trauma is a reaction to a deeply distressing or disturbing event. It is a normal response to an abnormal situation. Trauma can be physical, emotional, or both. The physical effects of trauma can include shock, pain, and physical injuries. The emotional effects can include anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health conditions (Levine, 1997, 2017; B. A. Van der Kolk, 2015; B. A. van der Kolk & McFarlane, 2012). Trauma is a complex and often misunderstood topic. There are many different theories out there about what trauma is and how it affects us. In this article, I’ll be exploring the Polyvagal Theory of trauma and its implications for the way we understand and work with clients who have experienced trauma. The Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 2011a) is a relatively new theory that has been gaining traction in the mental health field. It offers a new way of understanding the impact of trauma on the nervous system. This theory has important implications for the way we work with clients who have experienced trauma. The somatic approach to trauma is an approach that acknowledges the reality of the mind-body connection. This approach is based on the understanding that trauma is stored in the body as well as the nervous system. The polyvagal approach to trauma focuses on healing from a holistic approach. This article will explore the Polyvagal Theory of trauma and its implications for the way we work with clients who have experienced trauma. We will also explore the somatic approach to trauma and how it can be used to help clients heal.


What is Trauma?

Trauma is an emotional reaction to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that, at the time of the event, overwhelmed the individual's capacity to cope (Mate, 2019). Trauma is what happens inside of you due to what has happened to you (ibid). It is a broad topic and can range from disturbing personal experiences to widespread, collective experiences. It can include physical, emotional, and mental responses, and can result in a spectrum of psychological symptoms and physical effects (Herman & Van der Kolk; Mate, 2019; B. A. Van der Kolk, 2015). Trauma is both a subjective and an objective experience - it has individual, interpersonal, and collective components. It often manifests in disordered behaviors and psychological symptoms, such as dissociative episodes, difficulty sleeping, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or feelings of heightened or chronic fear.

Trauma is a reaction to a deeply distressing or disturbing event (Mate, 2019). It is a normal response to an abnormal situation. Trauma is the psychological and emotional impact of a stressful event or situation that overwhelms an individual’s ability to cope or respond (B. A. van der Kolk, 2000; B. A. Van der Kolk, 2015; B. A. van der Kolk & McFarlane, 2012). The effects of trauma are often manifested through visceral, endocranial, and somatoform disorders (Mate, 2019; Van der Kolk, 2015).


What is the Polyvagal Theory?

The Polyvagal Theory is a comprehensive theory of autonomic nervous system function. It was first proposed by Stephen Porges in the early 1990s (Porges, 2011b; Simon & Porges, 2012a) and has since been supported by a large body of empirical evidence. The theory states that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is composed of three distinct branches: the ventral vagal, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the dorsal vagal. Each of these branches serves a different purpose and is activated in response to different stimuli, especially stress (Porges, 1997, 2003b; Porges, 2011b; Porges, Doussard-Roosevelt, Stifter, McClenny, & Riniolo, 1999).


The Polyvagal Theory has important implications for our understanding of mental health. It can help to explain why certain disorders are more common in certain populations, and how the autonomic nervous system can be dysregulated in mental problems (Porges, 2011). It also has implications for treatment, as therapies that target the autonomic nervous system may be more effective for certain conditions. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the fight-or-flight response, while the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the rest-and-digest response.


The polyvagal theory states that the autonomic nervous system is constantly interacting with the nervous system, and that these interactions are constantly affecting our emotions and behaviors. The Polyvagal Theory is a theoretical framework for understanding the connection between trauma and the autonomic nervous system (Dana & Porges; Porges, 2003a; Porges, 2011b; Porges & Coles, 1976b). The theory suggests that trauma, or a traumatic experience, overwhelms the nervous system and causes disruptions in the way it functions, resulting in a variety of symptoms. This polyvagal theory is based on the understanding that the autonomic nervous system has three states: sympathetic (fight-or-flight), parasympathetic (ventral vagal), and freeze (dorsal vagal) (Dana & Porges; Porges, 2001, 2003b, 2007a; Porges, 2011b; Simon & Porges, 2012a). The theory suggests that when faced with a traumatic experience, the autonomic nervous system moves into a freeze state. In this state, the body and mind become overwhelmed, and it can be difficult or impossible to respond or regulate emotions.


The Polyvagal Theory: How the Nervous System Regulates Emotions

The Polyvagal Theory is a theory of how the autonomic nervous system regulates emotions (Porges; Porges, 1991; Porges, 2011b). The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration. The theory posits that there are two main ways in which the autonomic nervous system regulates emotions: 1. The vagus nerve, which is responsible for the “rest and digest” response, and 2. The social engagement system, which is responsible for the “fight or flight” response. The theory posits that these two systems work together to regulate emotions. When the body is in a state of “rest and digest,” the vagus nerve is deactivated, and the social engagement system is activated. This results in a feeling of safety and relaxation.


Conversely, when the body is in a state of “fight or flight,” the social engagement system is deactivated, and the vagus nerve is activated. This results in a feeling of anxiety and arousal. When we are in a situation that is safe and we feel supported by others, the autonomic nervous system kicks in and we feel calm and relaxed. When we are in a situation that is unsafe or we feel threatened, the vagus nerve kicks in, and we feel stressed and anxious. The theory has a number of applications, such as in therapy, child development, and treating trauma.


The Concept of Neuroception

Neuroception is a term that was first coined by Stephen Porges in the 1990s (Porges; Porges, 2007b; Porges, 2011b). It refers to the ability of the nervous system to detect dangers and threats in the environment without the help of cognition (Dana & Porges). Neuroception is a process that happens in the brain that allows us to assess risk unconsciously and automatically in our environment. It is a survival mechanism that is hardwired into our nervous system and helps us to protect ourselves from harm. This process happens outside of our conscious awareness and can be thought of as our brain’s built-in alarm system. It is constantly on the lookout for danger and can be triggered by a variety of things, such as a loud noise or a sudden movement. Once triggered, our body reacts automatically to the perceived threat. We might freeze in place, our heart rate will increase, and we will start to sweat. This is all part of the fight-or-flight response, which is a natural and automatic reaction that happens when we feel threatened.


Neuroception is an important part of our lives and helps us to stay safe. However, it can also lead to problems if it is constantly on high alert. This can happen in people who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or who live in a dangerous environment. It is an evolutionary mechanism (Porges, 2007a) that has helped us survive and thrive in the face of threat and adversity. Although we are not consciously aware of it, neuroception is constantly at work in our lives, shaping our decisions and behaviors in response to perceived threats. When we feel safe and secure, it is because our neuroceptive system has signaled that there is no danger. Conversely, when we feel anxious, stressed, or on edge, it is because our neuroceptive system has detected a threat. This can happen even in the absence of an actual threat, such as when we are anticipating a future threat. When we detect a threat, our nervous system signals the adrenal glands to release stress hormones, such as cortisol and noradrenaline, into the bloodstream. These hormones prepare the body for action by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.


How Does Neuroception Impact Our Lives?

Neuroception has a major impact on our lives as it can affect how we interact with our environment (Porges, 2011b). For example, if a person is constantly in a state of neuroceptive alarm, they may not be able to properly process sensory information (ibid). This can lead to difficulty reading social cues and interpreting people’s intentions, which can affect relationships and friendships. Neuroception can also affect our ability to go about our daily lives. If a person is constantly scanning for danger, they may not be able to focus their attention on tasks or engage in activities they enjoy. This can lead to feelings of helplessness (Seligman, 1972, 1978; Seligman, Rosellini, & Kozak, 1975; Seligman, Weiss, Weinraub, & Schulman, 1980) and a decrease in productivity.


There are three types of neuroception: positive, neutral, and negative. Positive neuroception is when the brain notices a safe environment and response accordingly – allowing us to relax and enjoy our surroundings. Neutral neuroception is when the brain detects no threat, and our body remains in a state of homeostasis. Negative neuroception is when the brain perceives a possible threat and activates the fight-or-flight response.


The Impact of Trauma on Neuroception

Trauma can have a significant impact on neuroception. People living with PTSD tend to have an overactive fight-or-flight response, which can lead to increased anxiety and difficulty focusing on tasks (Herman & Van der Kolk; Roth, Newman, Pelcovitz, van der Kolk, & Mandel, 1997; B. van der Kolk, 2013; B. A. Van der Kolk). This is because their brains often perceive even the slightest of stimuli as a potential threat. This can lead to difficulty functioning in a safe environment and can make it hard to trust or form relationships.


The physical effects of trauma

Trauma is a deeply distressing or disturbing experience (Kirkengen, 2009; Mate, 2019; B. A. van der Kolk, 2000; B. A. Van der Kolk, 2015). It can be physical, emotional, or psychological. Trauma is a psychological term that refers to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that has a lasting impact on an individual’s mental and emotional wellbeing. Trauma can be caused by a single event or by prolonged exposure to a stressful situation.


The physical effects of trauma are often underestimated or ignored, but they can be just as debilitating as the emotional ones. Trauma can occur in response to a single stressful or life-threatening event, or it can be the result of long-term exposure to stressful situations. The physical effects of trauma can have a significant and lasting impact on our physical health. trauma can cause a range of physical symptoms, including headaches, gastrointestinal and visceral problems, and chronic pain. It can also lead to long-term health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer (Mate & Mate, 2022). The good news is that there are effective treatments available for the physical effects of trauma.


The physical effects of trauma can vary greatly in intensity and duration. In some cases, physical trauma is immediately apparent and can involve physical pain, shock, and injuries. Physical trauma can be caused by accidents, physical assaults, extreme weather, or exposure to hazardous substances. The physical effects can be both immediate and long-term. Immediately following a traumatic event, an individual may experience physical shock, pain, and injuries (Porges, 2007a, 2007b; Porges, 2011a). Physical shock may involve rapid breathing, increased heart rate, and mild to severe pain (Rothschild, 2000). An individual may experience pain throughout the body or in specific areas if there are physical injuries. In the long term, physical trauma can lead to physical health problems, such as chronic pain, headaches, digestive problems, and even heart problems (Mate, 2019). Trauma can also lead to physical changes, such as a weakened immune system and higher levels of stress hormones (Mate, 2019). Physical trauma has been linked to physical disability, disability due to injury, and disability due to mental and physical problems.


The Emotional Effects of Trauma

Most people think of trauma as something that happens in the moment – like a car accident or a natural disaster. However, the reality is that trauma can have a lasting impact on an individual for years to come. There are a number of factors that can contribute to the lasting effects of trauma, including the type of trauma experienced, the individual’s coping mechanisms, and the support system in place. It’s important to understand the psychology of trauma and the emotional impact it can have in order to help those who have experienced it.


The emotional effects of trauma can be just as severe as the physical effects. Trauma can cause a range of psychological reactions, such as nightmares, flashbacks, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty forming or maintaining relationships. Emotional trauma can also lead to anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health conditions (B. van der Kolk, 2000). These emotional reactions can interfere with an individual's ability to function in daily life, including work, school, and relationships. As with physical trauma, the severity and duration of emotional trauma can vary greatly.


Emotional trauma can have both short- and long-term effects. In the short term, an individual may experience difficulty concentrating, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and changes in mood. These effects can become more pronounced over time and can lead to psychological conditions such as PTSD, anxiety disorders, and depression (B. van der Kolk, 2000, 2013; B. A. Van der Kolk, 1987, 2015; B. A. van der Kolk & American Psychiatric Association. Annual Meeting, 1984).


The Importance of Vagal tone for Mental Health

Vagal tone is the measure of your vagus nerve's activity. The vagus nerve is the longest nerve in the human body, and it extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It's responsible for many of the body's vital functions, including heart rate, digestion, and immunity (Porges, 2007a; Porges, 2011b; Porges, Doussard-Roosevelt, & Maiti, 1994; Simon & Porges, 2012a; Bessel A. Van der Kolk et al., 2014). Studies have shown that there is a relationship between vagal tone and mental health (Doussard-Roosevelt, Porges, Scanlon, Alemi, & Scanlon, 1997; Porges, 1991, 1992). People with higher vagal tone are more resilient to stress and have better mental health overall (Porges, 1995, 2001; Porges, 2011b).


There are many benefits to vagal tone regulation, including improved mental health, better digestion, and a stronger immune system. There are several ways to improve your vagal tone, including meditation, yoga, and deep breathing. High vagal tone indicates that the nervous system is responding to stressful situations in a positive way. People with higher vagal tone have been shown to have better academic performance, less anxiety, and better emotional resilience (Porges & Coles, 1976a; Porges, Doussard-Roosevelt, & Maiti, 1994; Porges, Doussard-Roosevelt, Portales, & Suess, 1994; Porges & Raskin, 1969; Porges, Riniolo, McBride, & Campbell, 2003).


Studies found that individuals with higher vagal tone had lower levels of cortisol, a hormone released in response to stress (Pellissier et al., 2014; Pulopulos, Vanderhasselt, & De Raedt, 2018). High vagal tone was also associated with lower incidences of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other mental health issues. Furthermore, low vagal tone has been linked to an increase in inflammation, which can exacerbate symptoms of anxiety and depression (Porges; Porges & Coles, 1976b; Simon & Porges, 2012b).


The benefits of Vagal tone regulation

The benefits of Vagal tone regulation are numerous, and include improved mental health, better digestion, and a stronger immune system. When the vagus nerve is functioning at optimal levels, it helps to regulate emotion and keep the body in balance. People with higher vagal tone are more resilient to stress and have better concentration, clearer thinking, and a more positive outlook on life. In addition, a healthy vagus nerve helps to maintain efficient digestion. It prevents chronic constipation, assists in absorption of nutrients, and produces hormones essential for controlling food intake. Lastly, the vagus nerve helps to modulate the immune system and prevent inflammation.


There are a few simple steps you can take to improve your vagal tone: 1. Meditation: Regularly practicing meditation can help to activate the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to regulate the body’s response to stress. It’s also been found to increase vagal tone and decrease the body’s cortisol response. 2. Yoga: Research has shown that yoga can help to increase vagal tone and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. 3. Breathing Exercises: Deep breathing is one of the simplest and most effective ways to activate the parasympathetic nervous system and increase vagal tone. This can be done at any time and can even be done in short intervals: for example, 4 seconds inhale, 8 seconds’ exhale.

Vagal tone is an important indicator of mental health, and studies have shown that people with higher vagal tone are more resilient to stress and have better overall mental health. Improving your vagal tone can be achieved with simple lifestyle changes, such as meditation, yoga, and deep breathing.


The Importance of Co-Regulation: A Polyvagal Perspective

Co-regulation is defined as a process in which two people mutually influence each other’s biological systems in order to maintain stability and homeostasis (Doussard-Roosevelt et al., 1997; Porges, 2011b). It is a form of self-regulation in which homeostasis is achieved through the interaction with another person (Porges, 2007a; Porges, 2011b; Porges, Doussard-Roosevelt, & Maiti, 1994; Simon & Porges, 2012a; Bessel A. Van der Kolk et al., 2014). The concept of co-regulation has its roots in the field of psychology but has been expanded to include the physiological basis of emotions and social interactions.


The importance of co-regulation has been widely recognized in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience. There are many benefits of co-regulation, including improved emotional regulation, increased physical regulation, and enhanced social interactions. The polyvagal theory, which looks at the role of the autonomic nervous system in regulating emotions, can help to understand how co-regulation works. Co-regulation is most necessary during periods of stress, when our bodies are in a state of fight-or-flight. In these moments, we are more likely to need the support of another person in order to maintain stability.


The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for the automatic control of internal organs and glands. It is divided into two parts: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the “fight or flight” response, while the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the “rest and digest” response. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role of the ANS in health and disease. The concept of “co-regulation” is a relatively new one that has emerged from this research.


Co-regulation is the process by which two or more individuals regulate each other’s physiology and behavior. This can be done through verbal and nonverbal cues, such as eye contact, facial expressions, and touch. The concept of co-regulation is important because it highlights the importance of social interactions in maintaining health and well-being. It also has implications for the treatment of conditions such as anxiety, depression, and stress-related disorders.


From a polyvagal perspective, co-regulation is vital for our wellbeing (Dana & Porges; Porges, 2011b; Porges, Doussard-Roosevelt, Portales, & Greenspan, 1996). It helps the individual to attune to the environment and others around him. When the individual is attuned, he is able to regulate his nervous system and stay in balance (Levine, 1997). Co-regulation can take many different forms, but ultimately it is about attuning to another person and being able to regulate emotions and physiology in response to them. This can be done through eye contact, touch, or even just being in the same space as someone else.


There are many benefits to co-regulation, such as improved emotional regulation, increased empathy, and enhanced social connection. However, there are also some downsides to co-regulation, such as feeling overwhelmed or drained by emotional attunement. Ultimately, the decision to engage in co-regulation should be a personal one. If you feel comfortable and safe with someone, then co-regulation can be a valuable tool for emotional regulation.


What is the somatic approach to trauma?

The somatic approach to trauma is an approach that centers the body’s experience of trauma, rather than just the mental or emotional response (Doussard-Roosevelt et al., 1997; Levine, 1997, 2017; Porges; Porges, 1992, 2001; Porges, 2011b). It considers the physical, emotional, and mental aspects of healing and understands that trauma is stored in the body as well as the mind. This approach focuses on healing the whole person, not just the mind. The somatic approach to trauma utilizes body-based therapies such as yoga, mindfulness, and breathwork (Levine, 2017; B. A. Van der Kolk, 1987, 2015; B. A. van der Kolk et al., 2014) to help clients reconnect with their bodies and overcome the symptoms of trauma.


Research has found that body-based therapies are beneficial for helping clients manage trauma-related symptoms and reduce physical and psychological distress. Body-based therapy is a type of treatment that uses the body to heal the mind (Levine, 1997, 2017). This includes techniques like yoga, Tai Chi, and massage. Body-based therapy is based on the idea that the mind and body are connected, they are one-system (Mate, 2019; Maté & Professional Education Systems). This means that by healing the body, we can also heal the mind. There is a growing body of research that supports the use of body-based therapy in the treatment of trauma. This research shows that body-based therapy can help to reduce symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. If you are looking for a new way to heal from trauma, body-based therapy may be the right choice for you.


How can the Polyvagal Theory be applied when working with clients who have experienced trauma?

The Polyvagal Theory is a framework for understanding the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The theory was developed by Stephen Porges (1992; 2011), and it posits that the ANS is composed of two branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The SNS is responsible for the fight-or-flight response, while the PNS is responsible for rest-and-digest. The theory further posits that the PNS has two sub-branches: the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the ventral vagal complex (VVC). The DVC is responsible for things like freezing in response to threat, while the VVC is responsible for social engagement and connection. the polyvagal theory provides new insights into how the human body responds to traumatic experience, and how it attempts to self-regulate and cope. The theory challenges our traditional beliefs about the autonomic nervous system and how it responds to trauma, and it provides a useful framework for understanding trauma responses and facilitating recovery.


The polyvagal theory can be applied when working with clients who have experienced trauma in a number of ways. Firstly, it can be used to help the client understand their trauma responses and why they experience certain sensations and emotions. By understanding the autonomic nervous system responses to trauma, the client can gain insight into their own responses and develop more effective coping strategies. Additionally, the polyvagal theory can be used to help the client learn to regulate their own autonomic nervous system. By utilizing breathing, mindfulness and sensorial exercises, the client can activate the ventral vagal complex and engage in more socially oriented activities. In essence, the client can learn to regulate their autonomic nervous system through practices such as mindful breathing and mindfulness activities.


The Importance of the Polyvagal Theory in Family and Couples Therapy

The polyvagal theory has revolutionized the field of family and couples therapy, providing a new framework for understanding and treating relationship problems (Bernards, 2017). The theory is effective in treating a wide range of relationship issues, from communication problems to trust issues. The theory recognizes that relationships are multi-faceted and dynamic; couples often find themselves in a cycle of negative behaviors that lead to feelings of threat. The polyvagal theory explains that this cycle can be broken by recognizing the body’s defensive response and learning to move through a state of threat to a state of safety. It’s important to understand the body’s response as it changes from feeling threatened to feeling safe. Keeping in mind that the fight-or-flight response is triggered by feelings of threat, and the rest-and-digest response is triggered by feelings of safety, the goal of family and couples therapy is to help couples recognize and manage the body’s response to these different states. By understanding the physiological response to threat, couples can develop strategies to move towards the state of safety and build trust. This insight can be utilized to help couples learn how to regulate their own emotions and behaviors, as well as understand their partner’s reactions in a relationship.


The polyvagal theory can help couples in a number of ways. It can be used to identify patterns of communication that have been causing problems in the relationship. By understanding the connection between the body’s fight-or-flight response and its rest-and-digest response, couples can learn to recognize when they are feeling threatened or safe, and develop strategies to regulate their emotions (Dana & Porges; Porges, 2011b). The polyvagal theory also recognizes that couples may have different levels of comfort with certain topics or behaviors. When this is the case, it can be helpful to identify each person’s comfort level and work towards creating a sense of safety. This can be done by accepting and validating each person’s feelings and perspectives, and working towards finding a solution that works for both people. In addition, the polyvagal theory can be used to help couples develop a deeper understanding of their partner’s needs and feelings. By understanding the body’s response to threat, couples can recognize and appropriately respond to their partner’s emotional cues. This can help the couple build trust and improve communication.


What are the benefits of using a Polyvagal Approach when working with traumatized clients?

The polyvagal approach has numerous benefits for both the therapist and the client. The approach can help the client better understand his or her trauma history and gain insight into their own responses. Additionally, the approach can help the client learn to regulate their autonomic nervous system and cope better with their trauma by developing skills such as mindful breathing. The approach can also help the therapist better understand and work with the client’s trauma. By utilizing the polyvagal theory, the therapist can more accurately assess the client’s trauma, and better address the root cause of their trauma symptoms. This can help the client develop healthier coping strategies, and ultimately lead to a more successful treatment outcome.


Are there any challenges associated with using a Polyvagal Approach when working with traumatized clients?

While the polyvagal approach has numerous benefits, there are also some challenges associated with this approach. The most significant challenge is that it can be difficult for the therapist to accurately assess the client’s trauma and then apply the appropriate techniques. Additionally, some clients may experience a resistance to the techniques provided when utilizing the polyvagal approach, which can thwart the efficacy of the treatment. In order to successfully utilize the polyvagal approach, the therapist must be well-versed in the theory and its implications. It is also important that the therapist be patient and understanding when working with clients who have experienced trauma and be able to recognize and validate their experiences.


Summary

The Polyvagal Theory is a useful framework for understanding the autonomic nervous system, and its response to trauma. It can be applied when working with clients who have experienced trauma, and it can help to provide insight into the client’s trauma response and facilitate their recovery. There are numerous benefits associated with using a polyvagal approach, but there are also some challenges. In order to ensure the most successful treatment outcome, it is important that the therapist is familiar with the theory and is patient and understanding when working with traumatized clients.


The polyvagal theory is an important concept for understanding the impact of trauma on the autonomic nervous system. It is important to have a good understanding of the theory, as well as the somatic approach to trauma, in order to be able to effectively work with clients who have experienced trauma. The somatic approach to trauma can be used to help clients connect with their bodies, reduce physical and psychological distress, and develop healthy coping skills. With the help of professionals, clients can heal from their trauma, reintegrate their body, and mind, and live a full and meaningful life.

Trauma is a normal reaction to an abnormal situation. The physical effects of trauma can include shock, pain, and physical injuries. The emotional effects can include anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health conditions. It is important to seek help if you are struggling to cope with the effects of trauma.


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